Question 1 (10 points)
You have a PCR template sample containing 100 molecules of dsDNA. If you ran 5 PCR cycles, what is the highest number of molecules you could have?
Question 1 options:
Question 2 (10 points)
When it’s all said and done, and you have completed your amplification, which substances below can still be found in your PCR tube? Select all that apply.
Question 2 options:
PCR amplification products
Question 3 (10 points)
Explain why we use both Giemsa and DAPI when studying human genetics, and not just one or the other. How are they similar, and how are they different?
Question 4 (10 points)
(1) What is the karyotype for men who have an extra Y chromosome? Discuss all the ways you can test for this abnormality.
(2) What is the karyotype for women who have an extra X-chromosome? Discuss all the ways you can test for this abnormality.
Question 5 (10 points)
Why is Sanger sequencing sometimes referred to as “dye-terminator” sequencing?
Question 6 (10 points)
Which of the following are considered to be “next-generation” sequencing technologies? Select all that apply.
Question 6 options:
sequencing by synthesis
sequencing by ligation (Applied Biosystems machines)
ion torrent sequencing (Life Technologies machines)
Question 7 (10 points)
One type of cancer is caused by a mutation that occurs in a gene whose length is 2kb. A 200bp deletion is responsible for this mutation, and it is dominant, meaning you only need to have one copy of it to have cancer. A Southern Blot could diagnose this disease, but describe how you could diagnose this disease using PCR instead.
Question 8 (10 points)
You have managed to create a personal PCR fragment containing a human olfactory receptor gene in an attempt to answer that question that’s been haunting you for years–whether or not your dog has any olfactory (sense of smell) genes that may be related to yours. Explain how you can use your fragment, along with the genomic DNA from your dog, to answer your question.
Question 9 (10 points)
You have been given a 1.0 kbp human genome fragment that does not contain any repeated sequences. Your plan is to use it as a probe for a Southern Blot containing your friend’s genomic DNA. You prepare your gel by digesting with the following restriction enzymes in the following lanes:
Lane 1: size marker
Lane 2: EcoRI
Lane 3: HindIII
Lane 4: BamHI
Your friend happens to be homozygous for the region you are probing. Does that mean you will only see one band in each lane? Explain.
Question 10 (10 points)
Concerning the previous question, what if you decide to conduct the same procedure on a different friend who happens to be heterozygous for the region being probed? Would you expect to see only one band per lane?
NOTE: All answers must be detailed and fully address the questions asked, and must incorporate and reference, at minimum, the course materials. Brief and/or insufficient answers that do not reflect rigorous academic effort and college-level critical thought on the part of the student will receive little to no credit.
*If the question above presents questions in list (i.e. numbered) form, you MUST clearly label your answer in the given list form (i.e. use the same numbers provided) and address each question separately in order to receive credit.
Question 1 (10 points)